Fred Gale

Senior Economist


Fred Gale is a Senior Economist in the International Trade and Development (ITD) Branch of USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS), Market and Trade Economics Division (MTED).


Fred conducts research and market analysis on China's agriculture, policies, and international trade. Fred also has extensive experience in research on U.S. farm structure and the rural economy.

Current Projects:

• Investigation of China's rejections of imported foods
• Comparison of Chinese and U.S. prices for major commodities
• China’s emergence as a major meat importer


PhD, Economics, N.C. State University, 1988. BS, Economics, Virginia Tech, 1983.

Selected Publications

Arnade, C., B. Cooke and F. Gale. 2017. “Agricultural price transmission: China relationships with world commodity markets,” Journal of Commodity Markets 7(2017):28-40.

Gale, F. 2017. China's Pork Imports Rise Along with Production Costs, USDA-ERS. LDPM-271-01.

Gale, F. 1993. “Why Did the Number of Young Farm Entrants Decline?” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 75(February):138-146.

Gale, F. and C. Arnade. 2015. "Effects of Rising Feed and Labor Costs on China’s Chicken Price," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 18(A): 137-50.

Gale, F., C. Valdes, and M. Ash. 2019. Interdependence of China, United States, and Brazil in Soybean Trade. USDA-ERS. OCS-19F-01.

Gale, F. and D. Hu. 2015. "Urbanizing China's Pigs," China Environment Series 2015/16:20-24.

Gale, F. and D. Hu. 2011. "Food Safety Pressures Push Integration in China's Agricultural Sector," American Journal of Agricultural Economics 94(2):483-88.

Gale, F., T. Wojan and J. Olmsted. 2002. “Flexible Manufacturing Technology, Work Organization, and Worker Skills”, Industrial Relations 41(1):48-79.

Gooch, E. and F. Gale. 2018. China’s Foreign Agriculture Investments, USDA-ERS. EIB 192.

Huang, K. and F. Gale. 2009. “Food Demand in China: Income, Quality, and Nutrient Effects,” China Agricultural Economic Review 1(4):395-409.

Wang, Z., H. Yuan, Fred Gale. 2009. “Costs of Adopting a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System: Case Study of a Chinese Poultry Processing Firm,” Review of Agricultural Economics 31(3):574-78.

Wang, Z., Y. Mao, and F. Gale. 2008. “Emerging Food Safety Awareness: Milk Products in Beijing,” Food Policy 33(1):27-36.