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Retaliatory tariffs reduced U.S. agricultural exports annually by $13.2 billion; impacts were concentrated in Midwestern States

Monday, January 24, 2022

In 2018, six U.S. trading partners—Canada, China, the European Union, India, Mexico, and Turkey—announced retaliatory tariffs affecting agricultural and food products. The agricultural products targeted for retaliation were valued at $30.4 billion in 2017, with individual product lines experiencing tariff increases ranging from 2 to 140 percent. USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) estimated trade losses from retaliatory tariffs by State and commodity using data in the ERS State Exports, Cash Receipts Estimates. Estimated annualized losses from mid-2018 through the end of 2019 totaled $13.2 billion across 17 commodity groups, led by soybeans, sorghum, and pork. While retaliatory tariffs affected all States, those in the Midwest experienced the largest losses. ERS researchers estimated Iowa lost $1.46 billion; Illinois, $1.41 billion; and Kansas, $955 million, all on an annualized basis. Iowa and Illinois, which together produce 25 to 30 percent of U.S. soybeans, both experienced trade losses in excess of $1 billion for soybeans alone. The retaliatory tariffs followed the issuance of U.S. tariffs on imports of steel and aluminum from major trading partners and on a broad range of imports from China. This chart can be found in the ERS report, The Economic Impacts of Retaliatory Tariffs on U.S. Agriculture, published in January 2022.

U.S. direct investment in Canada's food and beverage industries is substantial

Friday, March 9, 2012

At the end of 2010, Canada was the largest destination for U.S. direct investment abroad in the beverage/tobacco industries ($7.8 billion) and the second largest in the food industry ($5.9 billion). Mergers and acquisitions involving large firms sometimes lead to large year-to-year changes in the U.S. direct investment position in Canada's food and beverage industries. In contrast, there is little U.S. direct investment in Canadian agricultural production or the Canadian tobacco industry. This chart is found in the ERS topic on NAFTA, Canada, and Mexico, updated March 2012.

Roughly 25 percent of U.S. agricultural imports from Canada in 2010 consisted of meat

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Roughly 66 percent of U.S. agricultural imports from Canada in 2010 consisted of meat, grains, vegetables, fruit, and related products. Three of the five leading imports in 2010 were in the broad category of animals and animal products: live cattle and calves ($1.1 billion), beef and veal ($946 million), and pork ($868 million). The other leading imports were rapeseed oil ($1.0 billion) and wheat ($511 million). This chart is found in the NAFTA, Canada & Mexico topic on the ERS website, updated April 2011.