Management is a distributor/supplier process of managing
food and beverage categories as strategic business units, producing
enhanced business results by focusing on delivering consumer
Stores usually sell a wide range of goods with extended
opening hours. Examples of this format include 7-Eleven and
QuikTrip (see Excel
Discounters are comprised of hard
discounters and soft discounters. Hard discounters are typically
300-900 square meters (3,229-9,688 square feet) stocking fewer than
1,000 product lines, primarily in packaged groceries from
private-label or budget brands. Soft discounters are slightly
larger than hard discounters, stocking 1,000 to 4,000 product
lines, commonly carrying leading brands at discounted prices.
Discounters exclude mass merchandisers and warehouse clubs. Example
brands include Aldi, Lidl, Pls, Penny, and Netto.
Elasticity indicates how one
variable responds to a change in another variable. For example,
income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the
quantity of a particular product demanded as a result of a
percentage change in income, while price elasticity of demand
measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded as a result of
a percentage change in price.
Food Manufacturers convert bulky, perishable
animal and crop material into shelf-stable, palatable foods or
potable beverages. Increasing palatability, storability, and
convenience are all aspects of "adding value."
Food Retailers provide a market outlet where
consumers can purchase food products. Based on the nature of
products sold and the size of operation, food retail outlets range
from convenience stores to warehouse-style discount outlets.
Foodservice Outlets dispense prepared meals and
snacks intended for on-premise or immediate consumption.
Investment (FDI) is the movement of capital across
national frontiers in a manner that grants the investor control
over the acquired asset. Firms that use FDI are known as
multinational enterprises. Production in the foreign country is
largely financed by the multinational. Profits accrue to the
multinational through sales made by the foreign affiliate.
High-Value Food Products are processed food
products and perishable foods such as meats and fresh fruits and
High-Income Countries are countries in which
the per capita gross national income in 2005 was $10,726 or more,
according to World Development Indicators 2007.
Hypermarkets are stores
with a sales area of over 2,500 square meters (26,910 square feet),
with at least 35 percent of selling space devoted to nonfoods,
according to Euromonitor International.
Independent (nonchain) Food Stores have selling
space of less than 400 square meters (4,306 square feet) and
usually specialize in packaged groceries, where food accounts for
at least 50 percent of total retail sales, according to Euromonitor
Low-Income Countries are countries in which the
per capita gross national income per capita in 2005 was $875 or
less, according to World Development Indicators 2007.
Lower Middle-Income Countries are countries in
which the per capita gross national income per capita in 2005 was
between $876 and $3,465, according to World Development Indicators 2007.
Multinational retail chain refers to a retailer
who operates in more than one foreign country simultaneously.
Products are sold through retail establishments primarily
in the form of prepared foods for home preparations or direct
consumption such as baked, canned, frozen, or dried food products.
Fresh products such as fruit, vegetables, and meat, or basic
ingredients such as sugar, flour, and salt are not included.
Petrol/Gas/Service Outlets are roadside
establishments selling fuel and other products to motorists via a
convenience store attached to the fueling station.
Brands are the store brands that retailers use to market
products under their own label.
Products have undergone a transformation from their raw
forms either to extend shelf-life-such as the freezing or
dehydration of fruits and vegetables-or to improve consumer
palatability of raw commodities-such as transforming grain and
animal products into bakery and meat products. See Excel file for more examples.
Staple Food Products are commodities, like rice
and wheat, that have a long history of production and consumption
in a particular region. These commodities may account for a large
share of the diet of local low-income households.
Supermarkets are defined as
stores with a selling area of between 400 square meters (4,306
square feet) and 2,500 square meters (26,910 square feet), selling
at least 70 percent food and everyday commodities, according to
Euromonitor International. Outlets below 400 square meters may also
be included in certain countries, on the basis of format, product
mix, and opening hours.
Upper Middle-Income Countries are countries in
which the per capita gross national income in 2005 was between
$3,466 and $10,725, according to World Development Indicators 2007.
Value-Added Food Products are foods that have
increased in value (price) from the post-harvest stage of
production due to alterations in size, shape, appearance, location,
Wholesalers buy and resell food (from a variety
of producers and manufacturers), assemble it for distribution, load
it onto trucks, and deliver it to retailers, foodservice
establishments, institutional buyers, or the export market, making
profits on the services they provide.