Selected Trade Agreements and Implications for U.S. Agriculture (April 2011) examines how pending trade agreements (TAs) between the United States and Korea, Colombia, and Panama as well as recently concluded TAs between ASEAN (Southeast Asia) countries and China and Australia/New Zealand will likely affect U.S. agricultural trade. Model results suggest that U.S. agricultural exports to Korea would expand by an estimated $1.9 billion per year if the U.S. TA with Korea were implemented.
Where Will Demographics Take the Asia-Pacific Food System? (June 2004) assesses the impact of expanded urbanization, variability in population growth and immigration, and aging populations on the Asia-Pacific food system. The ability of developing countries to adjust to rapid urbanization will be the most important demographic challenge, testing the region's capacity to deliver a steady flow of safe, reasonably priced food.
Many factors determine the Structure of the Global Markets for Meat (September 2003), including the relative availability of resources for raising and processing animals for meat. Countries' preferences for various cuts of meat provide opportunities for international trade. South Korea has been one of the largest markets for U.S. meat exports.
International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns (October 2003) analyzes expenditures across 114 countries on major consumption categories, including food and different food subcategories. Results indicate poorer countries are more responsive to price and income changes and also allocate larger shares of their total budget to necessities such as food.
Structural Change and Agricultural Protection: Costs of Korean Agricultural Policy, 1975 and 1990 (April 2002) provides an overview of South Korea's agricultural policy goals and outcomes in a period of rapid economic development. Protection of agriculture skewed farmers' choices of crops and tended to keep labor in agriculture (and out of manufacturing and services), resulting in misallocation of resources. Despite the sharp decline of agriculture's importance in South Korea's general economy, high import barriers continued, incurring greater costs to the economy in 1990 than in 1975.
South Korea's Agricultural Policy Hampered Economic Growth (June-July 2002) examines the impacts of the country's agricultural trade barriers. South Korea s protective policies kept resources in agriculture, which, combined with high food prices, limited growth in the manufacturing and services sectors.
Economics of Tariff-Rate Quota Administration (April 2001) discusses South Korea's quotas and uses its wheat market as a case study of what can happen when a quota system is dropped.
The Road Ahead: Agricultural Policy Reform in the WTO-Summary Report (January 2001) calculates the possible effects of various multilateral trade liberalization scenarios on South Korea's agricultural markets.
The Financial Crisis Hit Korean Agricultural Imports Hard (March, 2000) details how the 1997 international financial crisis severely battered South Korea's ability to import, and how it altered government policies regarding finance and foreign investment, and sent the economy into an abrupt, steep recession.
Meat Imports by Japan and South Korea Projected Higher (February 2000) explains why meat imports by East Asia are likely to grow: declining competitiveness of domestic livestock production, differences in tastes for cuts of meat, and increasing overall meat consumption make East Asia a natural importing region.
Production, Supply, and Distribution (PS&D) contains official USDA data on production, supply, and distribution of agricultural commodities for the United States and major importing and exporting countries. The database provides projections for the coming year and historical data for more than 200 countries and major crop, livestock, fishery, and forest products.
Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States (FATUS) provides U.S. agricultural exports and imports, volume and value, by country, by commodity, and by calendar year, fiscal year, and month, for varying periods, such as 1935 to the present or 1989 to the present. Updated monthly or annually.
WTO Agricultural Trade Policy Commitments Database contains data on implementation of trade policy commitments by WTO member countries. Data on domestic support, export subsidies, and tariffs are organized for comparison across countries. This queriable database offers various options for viewing and downloading data.
Agricultural Market Access Database (AMAD) is a publicly available information tool for analyzing WTO market access issues in agriculture. It contains data and information for WTO member countries, including tariff schedules, tariff bindings, applied tariff rates, country notifications to the WTO, import quantities, and other data useful in tariff analysis.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Other U.S. Government
- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook
- U.S. Census Bureau trade data
- International Trade Commission (ITC)
- United States Trade Representative (USTR)
National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers
Trade Policy Agenda and Annual Report on the Trade Agreements Program