The Expansion of Modern Grocery Retailing and Trade in Developing
Countries (July 2011). Modern grocery retailing has been
expanding rapidly in developing countries. The expansion could
affect food trade by helping consumers achieve their preferences
for dietary diversity, convenience, and quality, as well as by
introducing supply chain efficiencies that may reduce real food
prices. The findings suggest that modern retail expansion has been
associated with the demand for nonprice characteristics, such as
convenience in food shopping and preparation, rather than
developing more efficient supply chains.
Indian Sugar Sector
Cycles Down, Poised to Rebound (April 2010). A cyclical decline
in sugar production is shifting India, the world's second largest
producer, from net exporter to net importer during 2009/10 and
contributing to the recent runup in global sugar prices, but
production is poised to rebound in 2010/11. The recent swings
in Indian sugar production are primarily due to a policy-induced
cycle that has become increasingly pronounced.
Growth and Equity
Effects of Agricultural Marketing Efficiency Gains in India
(December 2009). Agriculture is the largest source of employment in
India, and food accounts for about half of consumer expenditures.
More efficient agricultural marketing could generate economywide
gains in output and wages, raise agricultural producer prices,
reduce consumer food prices, and increase private consumption,
particularly by low-income households.
The Environment for
Agricultural and Agribusiness Investment in India (July 2008).
Despite strong overall economic growth and strengthening food
demand, investment in Indian agriculture and agribusiness has
remained sluggish, and growth in farm output has slowed, since the
early 1990s. The policy environment has grown more investor
friendly since the late 1990s and private investment appears to be
responding, but significant barriers remain and the pace of future
reforms remains uncertain.
Indian Wheat and Rice
Sector Policies and the Implications of Reform (May 2007). The
economic environment for India's food grain sector has changed
significantly since the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.
Future developments will be shaped by changes in productivity and
consumer demand, but primarily by how policies adapt to the new
environment. Some of these changes, such as reducing price supports
and the scope of government food grain operations, would likely
curtail government costs, benefit consumers, allow for a larger
private sector role in the domestic market, and increase reliance
on international trade.
The Role of Policy and Industry Structure in India's Oilseed
Markets (April 2006). Rising incomes in India are likely to
lead to continued strong growth in that country's demand for oils
and oil meals. Extensive policy intervention affects Indian oilseed
production, trade, and processing. Current high tariffs on oilseeds
and oil are of little benefit to Indian producers while imposing
high costs on consumers. Policy reform, particularly liberalization
of oilseed imports, could improve producer and consumer welfare and
have a significant impact on trade.
India's Emerging Apple Market (January 2006). Strong economic
growth is projected to lead to continued expansion of Indian apple
demand, but the high cost of domestic and imported apples compared
with other Indian fruit is likely to limit consumption to higher
income consumers. High internal marketing margins-or returns to
traders over and above measured costs-are a major contributor to
high retail apple prices.
Prospects for India's Cotton and Textile Industries (June
2005). Indian cotton use is expanding due to rising demand in India
and increased textile and apparel exports following the removal of
Multifiber Arrangement quotas. Reforms to policies that
discriminate against large scale manufacturing and use of manmade
fibers should boost export competitiveness and demand growth. Raw
cotton imports have increased recently, with future growth
dependent on how much progress is made in improving domestic cotton
yields and quality.
World Bids Farewell to the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA)
(February 2006). This Amber Waves article describes the genesis and
consequences of the MFA, and the impacts of its removal. China,
India, and Pakistan are the cotton-textile-exporting countries
expected to benefit most from the MFA's demise. However, global
cotton use is largely being driven by other factors, such as income
growth. For the full report, see The Forces Shaping World Cotton
Consumption After the Multifiber Arrangement (April 2005).
Agriculture: Status and Reform Potential 2004 (August 2004). Most of India's
extensive policy interventions in agricultural markets were
introduced in response to conditions prior to independence in 1947,
as well as the food crisis of the mid-1960s. Agricultural policies
are now resulting in burdensome subsidies, weak investment, and
sluggish growth in the sector. Recent election results revealed
significant dissatisfaction with the performance of the rural and
farm sector, which may give impetus to reforms that develop
infrastructure and remove regulatory constraints to private
investment in agricultural technology and markets.
The Elephant Is Jogging: New Pressures for Agricultural Reform in
India (February 2004). India's economy and agricultural sector
have made remarkable progress in the 57 years since independence in
1947. Now, however, the agricultural sector has outgrown the
policies that contributed to past success, as strengthening
consumer demand, rising subsidies, and low agribusiness investment
create pressure for policy reform.
Poultry Sector: Development and Prospects (February 2004).
Poultry meat is the fastest growing component of global meat
demand, and India, the world's second largest developing country,
is experiencing rapid growth in its poultry sector. In India,
poultry sector growth is being driven by rising incomes and a
rapidly expanding middle class, together with competitively priced
domestic feed supplies and the emergence of vertically integrated
Edible Oil Sector: Imports Fill Rising Demand (November 2003).
India is the world's leading importer of edible oils and is likely
to remain an important source of global import demand for the
foreseeable future. Income and population growth, trade policy
reforms, and domestic agricultural policies affecting the
productivity of India's oilseed farmers and processing sector have
contributed to increased consumption and import demand.
Pulse Sector: Results of Field Research (May 2003). India has
the world's largest pulse sector, but despite liberal import
policies, imports have remained a small share of supplies and per
capita consumption has declined. This report describes the market
for crops such as chickpeas and lentils in that country and
assesses the United States' competitive position as a
India's Consumer and Producer Price Policies: Implications for Food
Security (February 2003). Rising
retail grain prices (due to higher farm support prices) are the
principal constraint to improving access to food by the poor, who
spend roughly 80 percent of their income on food. Improving
marketing efficiency and farm yields would allow retail food prices
to fall without adversely affecting farmers.
Relaxes Restraints on Agricultural Imports (November 2000). Following an agreement
negotiated under the World Trade Organization, India will replace
its quantitative import restrictions with a system of tariffs and
tariff-rate quotas by early 2001, providing trade access to all its
commodity markets, including agricultural markets.
Trade Liberalization and the South Asian Economies: Adjusting to
the Challenges of Globalization
(December 1999). South Asian countries have made significant
strides in the past two decades in reforming economic policy,
removing trade restrictions, and implementing Uruguay Round
Agreement commitments, but further reform is needed to attain food
security and improve economic growth in the region.
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