Brazil Meet the World's Growing Need for Ethanol? Brazil
is the world's second largest ethanol producer and exporter (after
the United States). Several factors have combined to stimulate the
development of Brazil's ethanol industry: an increased capacity to
produce sugarcane as an ethanol feedstock, supportive government
policies, and improved efficiency in sugarcane production and
ethanol conversion processes.
Industry: Looking Forward. This report profiles and analyzes
Brazil's ethanol industry, providing information on the policy
environment that enabled the development of feedstock and
processing sectors, and discusses the various opportunities and
challenges to face the industry over the next decade.
Industry: Economic Reform and Development. This report
identifies the factors contributing to the cycles in Brazil's
cotton production and exports that have made the country both an
important market for U.S. cotton exports and now a competitor with
U.S. cotton producers since 1990.
The Expansion of
Modern Grocery Retailing and Trade in Developing Countries
(July 2011). Modern grocery retailing has been expanding rapidly in
developing countries. The expansion could affect food trade by
helping consumers achieve their preferences for dietary diversity,
convenience, and quality, as well as by introducing supply chain
efficiencies that may reduce real food prices. The findings suggest
that modern retail expansion has been associated with the demand
for nonprice characteristics, such as convenience in food shopping
and preparation, rather than developing more efficient supply
The Future of Biofuels: A Global Perspective
(November 2007). Global biofuel production tripled between 2000 and
2007, but still accounts for less than 3 percent of the
transportation fuel supply worldwide. Biofuels will likely be part
of a portfolio of solutions to high energy prices, including
conservation, more efficient energy use, and use of other
Brazil's Booming Agriculture Faces Obstacles
(November 2006). Brazil has emerged as an important player in
global food and agricultural markets, but the long-term growth of
Brazilian agriculture could slow due to supply-side factors. At the
same time, growth and changes in food demand in Brazil could dampen
growth in processed and high-value agro-food exports.
How Does Structural Change in the Global Soybean
Market Affect the U.S. Price? (April 2004). South American
soybean production, combined with the U.S. soybean stocks-to-use
ratio, provides a strong basis for forecasting U.S. soybean prices.
South American soybean production accounts for much of the global
structural change that has altered the relationships among U.S.
soybean production, use, stocks, and price.
U.S. Agriculture and the Free Trade Area of the
Americas (March 2004). The Free Trade Area of the Americas
(FTAA), under negotiation among the United States and 33 countries
in the Western Hemisphere, will progressively liberalize trade and
investment in the region. The FTAA will lead to an estimated
6-percent increase in annual U.S. agricultural exports to the
Hemisphere and a 3-percent increase in annual U.S. agricultural
imports from the Hemisphere.
Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns (October 2003). Analysis
of major consumption expenditures across 114 countries indicates
that poorer countries are more responsive to price and income
changes and also allocate larger shares of their total budget to
necessities such as food.
Many factors determine the Structure of the Global Markets for Meat
(September 2003), including the relative availability of resources
for raising and processing animals for meat. Countries' preferences
for various cuts of meat provide opportunities for international
Brazil and Argentina: Developments and Prospects for Major Field
Crops (January 2002). Recent increases in international
competitiveness by Argentine and Brazilian grain and soybean
producers likely foreshadow continued global trade-share gains,
particularly for soybeans and soybean products. Macroeconomic and
policy developments, particularly those related to exchange rates,
and infrastructure improvements will remain central to each
country's future prospects.
The Brazilian Sugar Industry: Recent
Developments (September 2001). Since
Brazil can produce either sugar or ethanol from sugarcane, it is
one of the few countries that can adjust sugar production rapidly
to potential world sugar shortfalls and high international prices.
Moreover, Brazilian government policies supporting economic
liberalization are likely to increase sugar production and
Lower Real Boosts Brazil's Agricultural
Exports (March 2000). Following
economic crises in Asia and Russia, Brazil suffered its own
financial crisis, which was exacerbated by capital flight. Brazil
devalued its currency, the real, 32 percent, which had an
immediate, positive effect-enhancing the competitiveness of
Brazil's agricultural exports. ERS analysis describes the Brazilian
financial crisis and its effects on Brazilian farmers and
international agricultural prices and trade.
Brazil's Financial Crisis and the Potential
Aftershocks (March 1999). Brazil is
known primarily as an agricultural exporter, not an importer.
Crisis-related currency devaluation increased the competitiveness
of its agricultural exports vis-a-vis U.S. exports, including
soybeans and soy products. Brazil's exports to the United
States-coffee, orange juice, and others-also benefited from the
U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil's
Processed Food Industry (March 1998). U.S. foreign direct
investment (FDI) in Brazil's processed food industry doubled from
$1.03 billion in 1990 to $2.15 billion in 1999, which increased
sales for U.S. food companies in the growing Brazilian market.
Trade characteristics, such as exports, imports, and tariffs, and
industry-specific characteristics, such as industry size and
concentration, explain the surge in FDI. U.S. FDI may complement,
rather than substitute for, processed food exports from the United
U.S. Department of Agriculture
World Agricultural Outlook Board. Supply and
demand estimates, weather and climate.
Foreign Agricultural Service. Country and commodity information.
Other U.S. Government
Department of Commerce.
International Trade Administration. Reports and
U.S. Census Bureau. Trade data.
International Trade Commission. Reports and
Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook.
Food and Agriculture Organization.
FAOSTAT. Data on production, trade, food
balance sheets, fertilizer and pesticides, land use and irrigation,
forest and fishery products, population, agricultural machinery,
and food aid shipments.
Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean (ECLAC). Statistical yearbook, economic survey.
World Bank. Country and regional reports and data.
International Monetary Fund. Country
financial and macroeconomic reports.
World Trade Organization. Trade topics, including dispute
Organization of American States.
Information System. Trade agreements, FTAA process, dispute
Development Bank. Research and statistics by country.
Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (Institute for Geography
and Statistics). Brazil in brief; statistical links;
Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e
Abastecimento (Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food
Supply). Statistics, regulations, plans.