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30 publications, sorted by date 

Amber Waves, August 22, 2016
Modifying border processes and procedures in ways that make U.S.-Mexico agricultural trade more agile—thereby allowing agricultural products to cross the border more easily and quickly—is one approach to fostering further growth in this trade. This article explores several opportunities to facilitat...
Amber Waves, March 28, 2016
ERS research shows that problems with adulterated and misbranded food imports persist, despite FDA’s deterrence and detection efforts. Fishery/seafood products, vegetable/vegetable products, and fruit/fruit products were the industries with the most shipments refused in 2005-13 and also in 1998-2004...
EIB-151, March 28, 2016
Of more than 140,000 FDA violations in food shipments for import in 2005-13, over half were for adulteration (safety, packaging integrity, or sanitation), and 41 percent for misbranding (e.g., misleading labels or those lacking English).
ERR-199, November 10, 2015
Non-tariff measures (e.g., sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade) were found to be significant impediments to agriculture trade in selected commodities between the United States and the European Union.
Amber Waves, April 06, 2015
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)—implemented in 1994 by Canada, Mexico, and the United States—has resulted in expanded flows of intraregional agricultural trade and substantial levels of foreign direct investment in the processed food sector. A more integrated North American market in...
ERR-176, October 28, 2014
The proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership is expected to increase the value of intraregional agricultural trade by about 6 percent in 2025, and increase U.S. agricultural exports to the region by 5 percent, compared with the baseline.
ERR-168, July 07, 2014
ERS reports the rates at which inspection of fruit and vegetable imports into the United States result in phytosanitary treatments at the border, and finds little evidence that phytosanitary regulations affect imports significantly.
GFA-24, June 27, 2013
The share of the population that is food insecure in 76 low- and middle-income countries is expected to decline from 21 percent in 2012 to 20 percent in 2013. Key determinants of food security are food production and import capacity.
EIB-82, October 03, 2011
ERS documents the extent of food safety audits in meat and poultry processing plants and examines the association between the use of audits and the plants’ size, business structure, and application of food safety technology
Amber Waves, September 01, 2011
Afghanistan is particularly vulnerable to food and fuel price shocks, which, in 2007/08, led to an increase in household food insecurity.
EIB-52, July 07, 2009
Food imports from China more than tripled in value from 2001 to 2008. ERS indicates the types of foods imported, analyzes FDA refusals of shipments, and describes China’s food safety regulation.
Amber Waves, September 01, 2008
Increasing agricultural imports benefits U.S. consumers, but shipments can transport harmful foreign pests and diseases. The United States and other nations use a number of approaches to reduce risks to agriculture and the environment from pests and diseases entering through trade. Economic analys...
ERR-65, August 29, 2008
To better understand how information about potential health hazards influences food demand, this case study examines consumers’ responses to newspaper articles on avian influenza, informally referred to as bird flu. The focus here is on the response to bird flu information in Italy as news about hig...
ERR-56, March 17, 2008
Globalization and income growth are resulting in increasing similarities worldwide in food purchasing patterns and food delivery mechanisms.
Amber Waves, November 01, 2006
Adverse publicity about contaminated food incidents has prompted improved food safety programs in China for both the domestic and export market. This article reviews the challenges for Chinese food safety and government programs to improve standards. Only a small portion of Chinese production for ...
Amber Waves, April 01, 2006
In the last decade, animal disease outbreaks have repeatedly disrupted meat trade. The economic effects of disease-related trade bans and consumption changes on an individual country depend on the size of its meat trade relative to domestic production or consumption as well as consumers' perception...
VGS-305-01, December 01, 2004
Using the example of recent hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States associated with green onions from Mexico, this report examines the economics of food safety. It reviews the incentives to adopt additional food safety practices and the economic impact of an outbreak on green onion growers in Mex...
AIB-747, August 13, 2004
These reports synthesize economic analyses of the complex relationships in food markets of interest to officials responsible for public policy, decisionmakers in the industry, and researchers. Topics addressed so far include the economizing practices of low-income households in making food purchases...
TB-1911, May 14, 2004
A national survey of meat slaughter and processing plants indicates that market forces, in conjunction with regulation, have worked to promote the use of more sophisticated food safety technologies.
AER-831, April 01, 2004
Recent industry innovations improving the safety of the Nation's meat supply include new pathogen tests, high-tech equipment, supply chain management systems, and surveillance networks.
AER-830, March 18, 2004
This investigation into the traceability baseline in the United States finds that private sector food firms have developed a substantial capacity to trace.
AIB-789-4, February 28, 2004
This research summarizes three case studies of how trade in meat and poultry products can be affected by food safety concerns.
AIB-789-2, February 28, 2004
This research brief examines the conceptual relationships between food safety and international trade.
AIB-789-1, February 28, 2004
This research brief presents some of the highlights of the ERS report, "International Trade and Food Safety: Economic Theory and Case Studies."
AIB-789, February 28, 2004
Expanding food trade has brought into sharper relief the divergence among countries' food safety regulations and standards. Differences in food safety regulations and standards can cause frictions and even disputes that interrupt international food trade. Countries are, however, tackling food safety...
Amber Waves, November 01, 2003
Global food trade is expanding, providing consumers with access to a wider year-round variety of foods at lower prices. Trade expansion, however, has brought into sharper focus the divergence among countries’ food safety regulations and standards.
AER-817, April 08, 2003
This study evaluates the costs of sanitation and process control in producing meat and poultry. The study shows that the costs of sanitation and process control as required by the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) rule of 1996 raised wholesale meat and poultry ...
AER-799, April 01, 2001
This report examines how product liability law treats personal injuries attributed to microbially contaminated foods. The risk of lawsuits stemming from microbial foodborne illness and the resulting court-awarded compensation may create economic incentives for firms to produce safer food. It is not ...
AER-784, December 01, 1999
An examination of five approaches economists and health policy analysts have developed for evaluating policy affecting health and safety: cost-of-illness, willingness-to-pay, cost-effectiveness analysis, risk-risk analysis, and health-health analysis. Also examines the theoretical basis and empirica...
AER-741, August 01, 1996
Microbial pathogens in food cause an estimated 6.5-33 million cases of human illness and up to 9,000 deaths in the United States each year. Over 40 different foodborne microbial pathogens, including fungi, viruses, parasites, and bacteria, are believed to cause human illnesses. For six bacterial pat...

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