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SSSM-313, September 17, 2014
Commerce Department announces an affirmative preliminary determination in its countervailing duty investigation of sugar imports from Mexico.
RCS-14i, September 15, 2014
The September 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
OCS-14I, September 15, 2014
Record soybean yields to raise season-ending stocks to 8-year high.
RCS-14h, August 14, 2014
The August 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
OCS-14H, August 14, 2014
U.S. soybean yields rise with favorable weather.
RCS-14G, July 15, 2014
The July 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
OCS-14G, July 15, 2014
Soybean price outlook dampened by prospects for record production.
GFA-25, June 30, 2014
The food-insecure population of 76 low- and middle-income countries is projected to fall 9 percent to 490 million in 2014. The food-insecure share of the population is projected to rise from 13.9 percent in 2014 to 14.6 percent in 2024.
SSSM-310, June 18, 2014
The USDA forecasts more sugar from Mexico for 2013/14 and for 2014/15.
RCS-14F, June 13, 2014
The June 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
OCS-14F, June 13, 2014
Tight U.S. soybean stocks support prices in advance of new-crop supplies.
RCS-14E, May 13, 2014
The May 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
OCS-14E, May 13, 2014
Global oilseed supplies seen surging with a record U.S. soybean crop.
FDS-14D-01, April 28, 2014
The pace of growth in China’s corn yield is a key determinant of its future corn imports. Yields are growing, but more slowly than U.S. yields. Trends suggest China’s corn consumption, driven by feed demand, will outpace production growth.
RCS-14D, April 11, 2014
The April 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
OCS-14D, April 11, 2014
Record 2014 soybean acreage heralds upsurge for currently tight stocks.
ERR-164, March 14, 2014
ERS research shows that food security improved in Chhattisgarh, India, in response to food aid distribution reforms.
RCS-14C, March 12, 2014
The March 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
OCS-14C, March 12, 2014
U.S. soybean exports stay firm despite gains in Brazil shipments.
OCE-141, February 13, 2014
USDA's longrun projections for global agriculture reflect steady world economic growth and continued demand for biofuels, which combine to support increases in consumption, trade, and prices.
RCS-14B, February 12, 2014
The February 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
OCS-14B, February 12, 2014
Strong demand for U.S. soybeans will soon shift quickly to Brazil.
RCS-14A, January 14, 2014
The January 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
OCS-14A, January 14, 2014
The January 2014 Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
RCS-13L, December 12, 2013
India's 2013/14 Production Forecast Reduced.
OCS-13L, December 12, 2013
An Abundance of U.S. Soybean Supplies Propels 2013/14 Exports.
OCS-13K, November 13, 2013
U.S. Soybean Exports Forecast Boosted by Strong Sales, Improved Crop.
LDPM-231-01, November 08, 2013
The United States is the world’s second largest broiler meat exporter, and exports are a valuable source of income for the industry. ERS examines factors affecting the growth in broiler meat exports, focusing on several major markets.
WHS-13I-01, October 23, 2013
Afghanistan’s milling industry has been slow to rebuild, due to highly variable domestic wheat supplies and competition from imported flour, largely from Pakistan where wheat producers and flour millers receive Government support.
RCS-13I, September 16, 2013
The September 2013 Rice Situation & Outlook report will contain projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global rice markets. The report is done 12 times a year and relies on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.
OCS-13I, September 16, 2013
Each month,the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
AES-79, August 29, 2013
U.S. agricultural exports in fiscal 2014 are forecast down from the previous year's record-high. Exports are expected to fall $5 billion to $135 billion. Imports in fiscal 2014 are expected reach a record $113 billion.
RCS-13H, August 14, 2013
U.S. 2012/13 export forecast lowered 2.0 million cwt
OCS-13H, August 14, 2013
Rising competition, smaller crop gains seen limiting U.S. soybean demand.
OCS-13G, July 15, 2013
Soybean acreage expansion, better yields are seen swelling 2013/14 stocks.
GFA-24, June 27, 2013
The share of the population that is food insecure in 76 low- and middle-income countries is expected to decline from 21 percent in 2012 to 20 percent in 2013. Key determinants of food security are food production and import capacity.
SSSM-298, June 18, 2013
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook for June 2013 reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the June 2013 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report. This edition will include a chapter on U.S. added sugars consumption, both ...
OCS-13-F, June 14, 2013
Strong soybean meal prices buoy U.S. processors.
AES-78, May 30, 2013
Record U.S. agricultural exports are forecast for fiscal 2013, up $3.7 billion from the year before to $139.5 billion. Imports are also projected to be at a record high, up $7.6 billion from fiscal 2012 to $111 billion.
SSSM-297-01, May 29, 2013
Brazil is the world’s leading sugar producer and, over the long term, world sugar prices are determined by production costs in Center/South Brazil, as well as the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Brazilian real .
SSSM-297, May 16, 2013
The Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook for May 2013 reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the May 2013 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report and new forecasts for 2013/14. Also included is a chapter on sugar supply and...
OCS-13E, May 14, 2013
Oilseed Production Gains for 2013/14 Could Outpace Global Consumption.
OCS-13D, April 12, 2013
Prices ease after USDA reports larger than expected soybean stocks.
SSSM-295, March 14, 2013
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook for March 2013 reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the March 2013 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report. Also included is a special chapter on methodology of projecting USDA ener...
LDPM-225, March 14, 2013
Export Markets Evolve, but Dynamic Year for Total Red Meat and Poultry Exports Not Expected.
OCS-13C, March 12, 2013
Moderating soybean meal and oil prices herald declining production.
AES-77, February 21, 2013
Fiscal 2013 U.S. agricultural exports are forecast at a record $142 billion, $6.2 billion above 2012 exports. U.S. imports are forecast at a record $112.5 billion, $9.1 billion higher than in fiscal 2012.
ERR-145, February 20, 2013
Is weak agricultural growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) due to poor natural resources? This study finds that other factors--economic, technological, and political--underlie agricultural productivity gains experienced by some SSA countries.
OCS-13B, February 12, 2013
Each month,the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
OCE-131, February 11, 2013
USDA's longrun projections for global agriculture reflect steady world economic growth and continued demand for biofuels, which combine to support increases in consumption, trade, and prices.
WHS-13A-01, February 04, 2013
The three major grain-producing countries of the former Soviet Union--Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine--have become a large grain-exporting region. This report examines the causes and provides the 10-year outlook for the region's exports.
RCS-13a, January 15, 2013
The U.S. 2012/13 rice crop estimates was slightly based on a higher yield reported by NASS. In the global market, export forecasts were raised for both 2012 and 2013 largely based on larger exports from India and Vietnam.
EIB-106, January 15, 2013
Heightened use of hydropower increases competition between local energy and agriculture sectors for scarce supplies of water. Although this may raise cotton prices locally, it has minimal effect on global prices.
RCS-12l-01, December 31, 2012
Southeast Asia dominates the world’s rice trade as the leading source of rice exports and the second-largest importing region. This region’s rice surplus of exports over imports has grown steadily over the past decade and the USDA projects that it will remain large over the next decade.
VGS-352, December 18, 2012
The 2012 U.S. dry bean crop is expected to reach 31.8 million cwt, an increase of almost 60 percent from low production levels of 2011.
AES-76, November 29, 2012
Fiscal 2013 agricultural exports are forecast at a record $145 billion, up $9.2 billion above 2012 exports. Imports at record $115 billion.
RCS-12K, November 13, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
CWS-12h01, October 23, 2012
Uzbekistan is the third largest cotton supplier for world markets and accounts for two-thirds of Central Asia’s output. ERS examines the role of government policies in future prospects for cotton production and exports.
LDPM-220, October 17, 2012
Ample supplies of pork and poultry moderate prices.
RCS-12J, October 12, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
VGS-351, September 27, 2012
Use of chickpeas (garbanzo beans) has increased in the United States as consumption of food such as humus expands. I n 2012, a record 196,900 acres were planted with Washington, Idaho, and California leading producers in the previous year.
SSSM-289, September 17, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month's edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
WHS-12i, September 14, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
RCS-12i, September 13, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
AES-75, August 30, 2012
This outlook report offers, on a quarterly basis, the U.S. agricultural import and export outlook, as well as the year-to-date value and volume of U.S. agricultural exports and imports, by commodity and region.
SSSM-288, August 15, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month’s edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
WHS-12H, August 14, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
RCS-12h, August 13, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
FDS-12G-01, August 09, 2012
ERs reviews China’s emergence as an export market for U.S.-produced DDGS, the primary co-product from corn-based ethanol production, and analyzes how Chinese trade policies and the costs of alternative feed affect demand.
ERR-138, August 09, 2012
Focusing on two agricultural subsectors—commodity foods and manufactured foods—ERS quantifies the extent to which RTAs have expanded trade between member countries and altered trade between member and nonmember countries.
TB-1933, July 18, 2012
This report documents the updated version of the Partial Equilibrium Agricultural Trade Simulation (PEATSim) model developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service. PEATSim is a global model, covering 31 commodities and 27 countries/regions. The model, consistent with economic theory, provides a fle...
SSSM-287, July 16, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month’s edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
RCS-12G, July 12, 2012
There were several major revisions to the 2012/13 U.S. rice balance sheet this month. On the supply side, the 2012/13 carryin was increased 5.0 million cwt to 34.5 million cwt. A higher area estimate raised the 2012/13 production forecast 8.0 million cwt to 191.0 million cwt. In contrast, 2012/13 im...
GFA-23, July 09, 2012
ERS assesses food security in 76 developing countries, including estimates for 2012 and projections for the next decade - latest report in an annual series. Key determinants of food security: food production and import capacity.
ERR-137, July 09, 2012
ERS focuses on the effects of Brazil’s science and technology investments and other public policies on the country’s growth in agricultural production – 77 percent between 1985 and 2006 – and its emergence as a major agricultural exporter.
VGS-350, June 28, 2012
Prices at the point of first sale remain low for most fresh-market vegetables and consumer prices also fell in the first 5 months of 2012. Volumes are strong as mild winter and early spring temperatures allowed early planting in many areas. Per capita use of fresh-market vegetables fell less than 1 ...
EIB-97, June 20, 2012
ERS examines food consumption patterns in Indonesia and measures the growth of modern food retail chains, packaged food purchases, and food imports in the world’s fourth-most-populous country.
AES-74, May 31, 2012
This outlook report offers, on a quarterly basis, the U.S. agricultural import and export outlook, as well as the year-to-date value and volume of U.S. agricultural exports and imports, by commodity and region.
ERR-133, May 30, 2012
Focusing on India, which has the world’s largest food-insecure population, ERS analyzes a large household data set used by India’s government to track household food security.
LDPM-215, May 16, 2012
Improved soil moisture conditions have improved the outlook for corn and wheat. Despite positive profit margins in other cattle and beef sectors, cattle feeders continue to endure negative profit margins.
SSSM-285, May 15, 2012
Projected U.S. sugar supply for fiscal year (FY) 2013 is down 2.4 percent from FY 2012, as lower imports more than offset higher production and beginning stocks. Higher beet sugar production reflects higher area and trend yields, while cane sugar production is nearly unchanged from a year earlier. ...
CWS-12a, March 12, 2012
U.S. net textile and apparel fiber imports decreased in calendar year 2011 as a result of the sluggish U.S. economy. Total fiber product imports reached 17.2 billion raw-fiber-equivalent pounds in 2011, 7 percent below 2010 and the second lowest since 2004. Meanwhile, fiber product exports rose fo...
OCE-121, February 13, 2012
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2021. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
LDPM-21101, February 07, 2012
ERS analyzes factors contributing to volatility in China’s pork market, including policy, disease, environment, food safety, and production cost issues, all of which influence China’s demand for imported pork.
LDPM-211, January 19, 2012
Beef/Cattle: Recent rains have provided some relief in the drought-affected Southern United States, but La Niña is expected to continue her influence into 2012. Despite the drought-induced sell-off of cattle in the South and record-high feed prices, prices for all cattle have held up well in 2011...
WHS-11L-01, January 04, 2012
Given expected increases in demand, imports are likely to grow in coming years even if Afghanistan’s rapid post-1990 production growth is sustained, suggesting growing dependence on supplies from Pakistan and other countries.
ERR-130, December 30, 2011
ERS quantifies investment trends by for-profit companies in food manufacturing, biofuels, and agricultural input R&D and explores how the trends are affected by changes in industry structure.
LDPM-210, December 15, 2011
Disproportionally large cow slaughter has kept average dressed weights lower during most of 2011 than if steers had constituted half or more of beef slaughter, as they typically do. Packer margins and high feed and feeder cattle prices are exerting downward pressure on fed cattle prices.
LDPM-208, October 18, 2011
Drought-induced cow-herd liquidation has reduced average dressed weights and resulted in relatively more ground products but fewer middle cuts. Wheat pasture could be priced at a premium this winter. Cattle feeding margins remain negative despite higher fed cattle prices.
LDPM-206-01, August 22, 2011
This report characterizes Mexican feeder-calf and fed cattle production systems in the context of the imports of Mexican feeder cattle into the United States. The increase in cattle feeding in Mexico will increasingly affect U.S. feeder cattle imports and U.S. beef exports to Mexico in ambiguous way...
ERR-122, July 12, 2011
Modern grocery retailing has been expanding rapidly in developing countries, with implications for food demand, farmers’ income, and trade.
ERR-121, July 12, 2011
Using a nationally representative household survey from Afghanistan, ERS analyzes the impact of increases in wheat flour prices before and during the 2007/08 global food price crisis.
BIO-02, June 27, 2011
This report profiles and analyzes Brazil’s ethanol industry, providing information on the policy environment that enabled the development of feedstock and processing sectors, and discusses the various opportunities and challenges to face the industry over the next decade.
CWS-11d-01, June 17, 2011
This report identifies the factors contributing to the cycles in Brazil’s cotton production and exports that have made the country both an important market for U.S. cotton exports and now a competitor with U.S. cotton producers since 1990.
ERR-113, April 12, 2011
ERS looks at the how reciprocal trade agreements affect trade between member and nonmember countries, as well as among member countries, in the world agricultural marketplace.
TB-1929, March 22, 2011
In a 2003 report, International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns, ERS economists estimated income and price elasticities of demand for broad consumption categories and food categories across 114 countries using 1996 International Comparison Program (ICP) data. This report updates that analysis ...
FTS-345-01, December 16, 2010
This report provides an overview of performance, advantages, and challenges of the Peruvian fruits and vegetables export industry. Three commodity case studies—asparagus, processed artichokes, and table grapes—highlight different degrees of competition with U.S. industries and impacts on U.S. grower...
VGS-341-01, December 01, 2010
This report examines the significance of dry bean trade to the member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), provides a detailed understanding of supply, demand, and policy in the U.S. and Mexican dry bean sectors, and considers the outlook for these industries.
LDPM-194-01, August 30, 2010
This report provides a broad overview of the beef market in Japan, including consumer’s preferences, domestic production practices, domestic and trade policies, and market outlook.
GFA-21, July 08, 2010
Food security in 70 developing countries is estimated to have improved between 2009 and 2010, due in part to economic recovery in many of these countries. Over the next decade, the overall number of food-insecure people is projected to decline slightly.
FTS-341-01, April 21, 2010
This report reviews Japanese government programs to support domestic fruit production and how these policies affect fruit consumption in one of the largest markets for U.S. fruits. Production targets and subsidies aim to bolster the supply of domestic fruit, while phytosanitary measures and tariffs ...
ERR-89, December 17, 2009
ERS examines the performance of India’s agricultural marketing system and analyzes economywide implications of improved marketing efficiency that might stem from future reforms.
FDS-09k-01, December 14, 2009
China’s corn imports are minimal, even though it is using a growing proportion of its corn to produce starch, ethanol, and other industrial products. The corn-processing industry’s growth was encouraged by Chinese government policy, but the industry now has excess capacity. Many of the corn-based in...
ERR-81, September 16, 2009
ERS examines the characteristics and scope of agricultural and wildlife smuggling, its responsiveness to economic incentives, and regulations and other efforts to reduce its risks.
ERR-80, September 09, 2009
This report analyzes recent structural changes in the world cotton industry and develops a statistical model that reflects current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes in 2008 authorized USDA to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in nearly 80 years. Systematic ...
WRS-09-05, August 20, 2009
The global economic crisis that started in late 2008 has led to a sharp curtailment of international trade, including a short-term decline in the value of global agricultural trade of around 20 percent. After slowing, global agricultural trade will continue to grow in the future. The crisis is leadi...
ERR-77, July 30, 2009
Developing countries, particularly those that depend heavily on a small number of agricultural exports, are vulnerable to domestic and international shocks. These countries often have difficulty achieving sustained economic growth. This analysis uses Malawi, a country that earns most of its foreign ...
EIB-52, July 07, 2009
Food imports from China more than tripled in value from 2001 to 2008. ERS indicates the types of foods imported, analyzes FDA refusals of shipments, and describes China’s food safety regulation.
GFA-20, June 30, 2009
Food security in 70 developing countries is projected to deteriorate over the next decade, according to USDA’s Economic Research Service. After rising nearly 11 percent from 2007 to 2008, the number of food-insecure people in the developing countries analyzed by ERS researchers is estimated to rise ...
WRS-0904, May 15, 2009
During the 2000s, Russian agricultural imports have grown considerably, from $7 billion in 2000 to $33 billion in 2008. This import growth has made Russia the second largest agricultural importer among emerging markets, after China. The main reasons for the import rise are macroeconomic—high growth ...
EIB-51, April 07, 2009
ERS provides an overview of issues in China’s agricultural development and the policy responses, and assesses the effects of policies on China’s growing role in international markets.
OCE-2009-1, February 12, 2009
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2018. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
ERR-71, February 05, 2009
The aging of Japan’s population only partially explains the downward trend in orange consumption, and the negative trend could continue.
WRS-0901, January 01, 2009
Colombia's sugarcane-based ethanol industry, after operating for only 3 years, is the second most developed in the Western Hemisphere. Most Colombian ethanol plants are energy self-sufficient and even generate surplus power that is sold to the national electric grid. Colombia's sugarcane-based ethan...
EIB-39, September 09, 2008
This report examines U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data on refusals of food offered for importation into the United States from 1998 to 2004. Although the data do not necessarily reflect the distribution of risk in foods, the study found that import refusals highlight food safety problems ...
ERR-59, July 16, 2008
ERS examines the implications and potential impacts of the first major reform of the 2005 reform of the European Union’s sugar policy, the first major reform of the policy since 1968.
EIB-37, July 09, 2008
Investment in India’s agriculture sector has been sluggish since the early 1990s, but the policy environment has grown more investor friendly and private investment appears to be responding.
GFA-19, July 03, 2008
The number of food insecure people in the 70 lower income countries covered in this report rose between 2006 and 2007, from 849 million to 982 million. Food insecure people are those consuming less than the nutritional target of 2,100 calories per day. The food security situation of these countries ...
FTS-330-01, March 12, 2008
Japan is a large market for U.S. orange exports, and most of Japan’s orange consumption is supplied by U.S. exports. Orange consumption and imports grew until 1994, but have declined since. Demographic shifts are linked to changing orange consumption: older birth cohorts eat more oranges, and younge...
OCE-2008-1, February 12, 2008
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2017. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
CWS-07I-01, November 06, 2007
USDA has developed a new approach for estimating cotton consumption in China based on textile import and export data, supplementing the traditional methodology that uses yarn production data from China’s National Bureau of Statistics. This analysis suggests USDA’s historical estimates of China’s cot...
LDPM-15902, October 05, 2007
In 2003, outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus had a major negative impact on the global poultry industry. Initially, import demand for both uncooked and cooked poultry declined substantially, due to consumers’ fear of contracting avian influenza by eating poultry meat...
LDPM-15901, September 24, 2007
Argentina and Uruguay (A/U) are significant beef exporters and among the world’s greatest consumers of beef on a per capita basis. Between 13 and 20 percent of U.S. beef imports, on a tonnage basis, come from these two countries annually, and it is mostly grass-fed beef. Currently, only 10-20 percen...
FTS-32801, September 10, 2007
U.S. imports of fresh fruit and vegetables have increased substantially, particularly since the 1990s. Dominant suppliers are the North American Free Trade Agreement region for fresh vegetables, the Southern Hemisphere countries for off-season fresh fruit, and equatorial countries for bananas. The s...
ERR-46, September 04, 2007
Rising incomes in emerging markets are propelling U.S. export growth, while consumer demand for diversified products is a primary driver of import growth.
WRS-0703, August 22, 2007
U.S. exports of soybeans and cotton to China have boomed in recent years, but the undervalued exchange rate for the Chinese yuan keeps prices of most other U.S. food and agricultural products more expensive than Chinese products. On average, Chinese retail food prices are about a fourth of U.S. pric...
ERR-41, May 03, 2007
The pronounced market cycles and declines in per capita consumption of India’s major food staples, as well as budgetary concerns, are creating pressure for Indian policymakers to adjust longstanding policies.
OCE-2007-1, February 14, 2007
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2016. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
ERR-32, January 04, 2007
As incomes rise in China, consumers are demanding greater quality, convenience, and safety in food. Recent changes in China’s food market landscape warrant a new assessment of its food demand.
WRS-0602, September 15, 2006
Canada has become the United States’ most important trading partner. Canada is a large exporter to the United States of critical raw materials—including natural gas, petroleum, and wood products—and a substantial importer of finished industrial and consumer goods. Canada’s agricultural trade continu...
GFA-17, May 31, 2006
In 2005, 777 million people were food insecure in 70 lower income countries studied in this report. On average, there has been a slight decline in the number of hungry people from 688 million in 1992-94 to 639 million in 2002-04. Both Asia and the Commonwealth of Independent States experienced a 30-...
ERR-17, April 19, 2006
This report reviews recent developments in India's oilseed sector and assesses the implications of current and potential future policy reforms for the oilseed sector. Extensive policy intervention continues to affect oilseed production, trade, and processing in India. Findings suggest that India's c...
ERR-16, February 22, 2006
This report examines issues related to modeling complex policy regimes that affect international dairy markets using a partial equilibrium, multiple-commodity, multiregion model of agricultural policy and trade. Average bound tariffs for dairy remain among the highest of all agricultural commodities...
FTS-32001, February 14, 2006
China has raised its profile in global fruit and vegetable markets, with the value of its exports during 2002-04 more than double the value from a decade earlier. Most of China's exports are processed fruits and vegetables that do not yet pose a serious challenge to U.S. exports. However, China's fr...
WRS-0601, January 11, 2006
China has substantially boosted lending to farmers and agribusinesses in recent years. The balance of loans to farmers doubled between 2001 and 2005. Loans for agribusinesses and rural infrastructure rose as well. Rural credit cooperatives and banks that lend to agriculture are being reformed and co...
FTS-31901, January 11, 2006
Strong economic growth is projected to lead to continued expansion of Indian apple demand, but the high cost of domestic and imported apples compared with other Indian fruit is likely to limit consumption to higher income consumers. U.S. apples have accounted for the largest share of Indian imports,...
FTS-31801, October 26, 2005
The World Trade Organization (WTO) ruled in June 2005 that Japan's phytosanitary protocol related to fire blight for imports of U.S. apples was not justified and was in breach of Japan's WTO commitments. In August 2005, Japan issued a new phytosanitary protocol that complies with the WTO ruling. Wit...
CWS-05D01, June 02, 2005
India's prospects are changing now that the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) no longer governs world textile trade. Decades of industrial policies that were both inward-oriented and biased toward small-scale production continue to influence India's textile trade prospects. While the recent introduction ...
ERR-6, May 20, 2005
Nonreciprocal trade preference programs originated in the 1970s as an effort by high-income developed countries to provide tariff concessions for low-income countries. This study analyzes detailed trade and tariff data for the United States and the European Union (the two largest nonreciprocal prefe...
WRS-0504, May 06, 2005
China's agricultural imports more than doubled between 2002 and 2004 due to surging demand for basic commodities, a more open trade regime, and tighter commodity supplies in the Chinese domestic market. U.S. agricultural exports to China jumped to a record $5.5 billion in 2004 due to dramatic growth...
GFA-16, April 28, 2005
Just over 1 billion people in the 70 low-income countries studied in this report are estimated to have consumed less than the recommended nutritional requirements in 2004. This marks an increase from more than 830 million in 2003. Over the coming decade, food security is projected to improve most si...
WRS-0503, April 15, 2005
Countercyclical assistance is the common thread among recent agricultural policy innovations of the United States, Mexico, and Canada. In other areas, the three countries are pursuing distinct agricultural policies, reflecting differing national objectives and economic contexts.
WRS-0502, February 22, 2005
In the 11 years since implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the agricultural sectors of Canada, Mexico, and the United States have become much more integrated. U.S. feedstuffs have facilitated a marked increase in Mexican meat production and consumption, and the importan...
AIB-794, February 01, 2005
This report describes how consumer preferences are driving changes in global food supply chains, including growth in private label sales and expansion of multinational retailers and manufacturers in developing countries.
OCS-04J01, October 29, 2004
Rapid demand growth for soybeans and soybean products has outstripped supply in China over the past two decades. Liberalization in production and trade policies has facilitated the country's booming soybean imports, though some recent policy changes have disrupted imports. Despite short-term disrupt...
WRS-0408, October 12, 2004
China's rapid economic growth has been driven by high rates of investment, gains in productivity, and liberalized foreign trade and investment. China's growth is likely to continue, but the Chinese economy faces some possibly unsustainable pressures.
WRS-0406, June 01, 2004
International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions—the E...
GFA-15, May 20, 2004
Just over 900 million people in the 70 low-income countries studied in this report are estimated to have consumed less than the recommended nutritional requirements in 2003. This marks a decline from more than 1 billion in 2002. Although food security is expected to improve in all regions over the c...
WRS-0404, February 27, 2004
This report provides information and analysis on a wide range of topics relating to agriculture in the United States and European Union (EU), including comparisons of farm structure, production, agricultural productivity, risk management, environmental, commodity policy, trade, and food consumption,...
WRS-04-03, February 02, 2004
Poultry meat is the fastest growing component of global meat demand, and India, the world's second largest developing country, is experiencing rapid growth in its poultry sector. In India, poultry sector growth is being driven by rising incomes and a rapidly expanding middle class, together with the...
AER-828, November 07, 2003
This report examines the conceptual relationships between food safety and international trade and analyzes empirical examples from the meat and poultry, produce, food and animal feed crop, and seafood sectors.
TB-1904, October 06, 2003
This report analyzes expenditures on major consumption categories including food and different food subcategories across 114 countries. It also presents estimated expenditure responsiveness or elasticities with price and income changes for each of the major consumption categories and food subcategor...
AIB-782, March 03, 2003
This report documents the problem of water scarcity in parts of northern China and describes China's agricultural water management policies as well as reforms underway to encourage water conservation.
GFA-14, February 03, 2003
This report projects food gaps in 70 low-income developing countries and presents findings for North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union.
AER-809, April 18, 2002
The economic development of South Korea is often considered a model for developing countries. We use 1975 and 1990 data in a general equilibrium framework with a highly disaggregated sector specification to evaluate the opportunity cost of its agricultural protection. We show that although agricultu...
GFA-13, April 01, 2002
The Food Security Assessment report provides food gap and hunger projections for 67 potentially food insecure countries in North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and NIS.
AIB-775, April 01, 2002
Assessment of issues that will affect China's future trends in consumption, production, import, and export of food and agricultural commodities. A series of 13 articles cover China's food consumption, marketing, international trade, agricultural policy, transportation infrastructure, regional divers...
AER-798, January 01, 2002
The report examines the restructuring of the livestock sectors in five countries: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, and Romania. All five countries experienced a decline in both animal inventories and meat output during the early years of transition away from a centrally planned economy. The study i...
WRS-013, December 28, 2001
This report identifies key factors underlying the agricultural productivity growth and enhanced international competitiveness of Brazil and Argentina in the past decade. Economic and policy reforms, infrastructure development, and enhanced use of agricultural inputs that drove output growth during t...
WRS-012, November 08, 2001
The Chinese grain sector faces pressure from both external competition and internal shifts in consumer preferences that could reshape the industry. The report focuses on the long-term expectations for China's agriculture in the face of continued growth and openness to trade.
WRS-01-1, May 30, 2001
Higher income, urbanization, other demographic shifts, improved transportation, and consumer perceptions regarding quality and safety are changing global food consumption patterns. Shifts in food consumption have led to increased trade and changes in the composition of world agricultural trade. Give...
AER-802, May 15, 2001
Agricultural trade barriers and producer subsidies inflict real costs, both on the countries that use these policies and on their trade partners. This report quantifies the costs of global agricultural distortions and the potential benefits of their full elimination. The report concludes that elimin...
AIB-765, April 23, 2001
Included here are a number of short multidisciplinary issue papers that address how food security in the United States and throughout the world is affected by issues like trade liberalization, income distribution, and natural resources. ERS research shows that more than 800 million people are hungry...
GFA-12, February 26, 2001
USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) projects that average per capita food consumption for 67 low-income countries will increase in the next decade. ERS also projects that the number of people failing to meet their nutritional requirements will decline from 774 million in 2000 to 694 million in 20...
WRS-992, October 01, 1999
Provision for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was integral to the agreements that established the European Union (EU) and the CAP has been among the most important EU policies administered and funded in common. Revisions or " reforms " of the CAP have been numerous,in response to dramatic chang...
TB-1865, February 01, 1998
This report documents the modeling framework (European Simulation Model, ESIM) used to analyze the 1992 CAP reform and discusses possible effects of EU enlargement. Potential accession of a number of eastern and central European countries into the European Union (EU) seems destined to lead to furthe...
TB-1858, May 01, 1997
This report quantifies the potential impact of China's and Taiwan's accession to the World Trade Organization on U.S. and world agricultural trade by means of a 12-region, 14-sector computable general equilibrium model for world trade and production. Integrating China and Taiwan into the global trad...
AER-734, September 11, 1996
More than 60 percent of U.S. agricultural exports in fiscal 1995 went to members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC). U.S. exports to APEC surged 23 percent over FY1994, reaching a record $33 billion. A new ERS study, APEC Agriculture and Trade: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation...

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