FTS-358, March 27, 2015
A fractional decline in domestic citrus production is forecast, but gains in mandarins' and lemons' production should place downward pressure on grower prices. Winter strawberry supplies are ample.
WRS-15-01, February 02, 2015
In 20 years after NAFTA’s implementation, U.S. agricultural exports to Canada and Mexico increased from $8.9 billion to $39.5 billion, while U.S. agricultural imports from these trading partners rose from $7.4 billion to $39.4 billion.
ERR-176, October 28, 2014
The proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership is expected to increase the value of intraregional agricultural trade by about 6 percent in 2025, and increase U.S. agricultural exports to the region by 5 percent, compared with the baseline.
FTS-357-01, September 29, 2014
ERS analyzes seasonal patterns in grower prices for several major U.S. fresh fruits markets. Strawberries, grapes, and peaches all have distinct seasonal price patterns. In several cases, the timing of high and low prices has shifted.
FTS-357, September 26, 2014
Abundant apple supplies will move to markets in the 2014/15 marketing year, putting downward pressure on U.S. apple prices. The 2014 U.S. pear crop is forecast 9 percent smaller than a year ago.
ERR-168, July 07, 2014
ERS reports the rates at which inspection of fruit and vegetable imports into the United States result in phytosanitary treatments at the border, and finds little evidence that phytosanitary regulations affect imports significantly.
EIB-124, May 16, 2014
Pesticide use on 21 selected crops more than tripled from 1960 to 1981, but has since declined from 632 million pounds to 516 million pounds in 2008, partly due to more efficient active ingredients, Integrated Pest Management, and GE seeds.
EIB-123, April 29, 2014
Small acreage does not necessarily translate into low farm sales. About 17 percent (50,000) of farms with 10 or fewer acres had gross sales of at least $10,000 in 2007, and approximately 6,000 had sales of more than $250,000 that year.
EIB-121, February 20, 2014
In the United States, 31 percent—or 133 billion pounds—of the 430 billion pounds of the available food supply at retail and consumer levels went uneaten in 2010.
Errata: On June 27, 2014, Tables 2, 3, and 5 were updated to correct some incorrect values. The errors did not affect ...
FTS-356-01, December 30, 2013
Imports of fresh fruits complement domestic production and contribute to the year-round availability of fresh fruit in the U.S. market. Imports also help lower domestic prices and smooth out price fluctuations.
ERR-160, November 26, 2013
The transmission of fuel prices to wholesale produce prices depends not only on distance from farm to sales point, but also on the transportation method, import shares and seasonality issues, and perishability.
FTS-356, July 26, 2013
Lighter cherry supplies in California and Washington State are supporting upward pressure on 2013 domestic cherry prices. Mix of hot and cold weather hindered early-season peach production from its full potential.
FTS-355, March 29, 2013
Total U.S. citrus production reduced in 2012/13 due to warm, dry winter. Forecast production at 11.4 million tons. The domestic all-orange crop is forecast 4 percent less than previous season at 8.7 million tons.
VGS-352, December 18, 2012
The 2012 U.S. dry bean crop is expected to reach 31.8 million cwt, an increase of almost 60 percent from low production levels of 2011.
FTS-354, December 18, 2012
Forecast total citrus production to remain stable in 2012/13 at 11.75 million tons. United States all-orange forecast harvest remains unchanged from last season at 9.01 million tons, with declines in Florida navel production negated by gains in Florida Valencia production. Tangerines are forecast 2...
VGS-351, September 27, 2012
Use of chickpeas (garbanzo beans) has increased in the United States as consumption of food such as humus expands. I n 2012, a record 196,900 acres were planted with Washington, Idaho, and California leading producers in the previous year.
FTS-353, September 27, 2012
Multiple spring freezes and summer’s high temperatures and dry conditions hampered progress of many fruit crops across the country, affecting growing regions or areas at different magnitude levels. Forecast smaller U.S. apple, pear, and grape crops this year will likely boost their prices during th...
VGS-350, June 28, 2012
Prices at the point of first sale remain low for most fresh-market vegetables and
consumer prices also fell in the first 5 months of 2012. Volumes are strong as mild
winter and early spring temperatures allowed early planting in many areas. Per capita use
of fresh-market vegetables fell less than 1 ...
FTS-352, June 28, 2012
This season’s Southern Hemisphere blueberry shipments to the United States (primarily from Chile) have already ended and sourcing has now transitioned to domestic production. Current domestic pricing for fresh blueberries is above last year’s, caused by an early finish to Chilean shipments this wint...
FTS-351, March 30, 2012
USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) released its March citrus production forecast for marketing year 2011/12 on March 9. Total U.S. citrus production is forecast at 11.6 million tons, down less than 1 percent from 2010/11 and less than 1 percent below the initial October citrus fo...
FTS-348, July 29, 2011
The index of prices received by fruit and tree nut growers in June, at 157 (1990-92=100), rose 9 percent from the May index and increased 18 percent above the June 2010 index. Year-to-year price increases in June for process grapefruit and fresh-market apples, grapes, peaches, pears, and strawberrie...
FTS-347-01, July 25, 2011
This report uses data from USDA’s 2007 Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) and other sources to examine trends in the U.S. apple sector and compare production and marketing characteristics under organic and conventional farming systems.
ERR-115, April 15, 2011
ERS examines possible impacts of recently implemented free trade agreements (FTAs) where the United States is not a partner, and potential effects of pending U.S. agreements with Korea, Colombia, and Panama.
OCE-111, February 14, 2011
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2020. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
VGS-342-02, February 10, 2011
This report highlights the anticipated consequences of the 2008 Farm Act’s Planting Transferability Pilot Program (PTPP) on processing (pickling) cucumber plantings. PTPP allows program crop growers in seven Upper Midwestern States to reduce base acres and plant select vegetables for processing on t...
FTS-345-01, December 16, 2010
This report provides an overview of performance, advantages, and challenges of the Peruvian fruits and vegetables export industry. Three commodity case studies—asparagus, processed artichokes, and table grapes—highlight different degrees of competition with U.S. industries and impacts on U.S. grower...
Amber Waves, December 01, 2010
Reduction in the supply of workers that could make agricultural labor more expensive for the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry may impact industry competitiveness, but the effects would vary by commodity.
ERR-106, November 12, 2010
Over a third of U.S. nonmetropolitan counties lost at least 10 percent of their population through net outmigration during the past two decades. ERS compares characteristics of such counties with other nonmetro counties.
AP-050, November 10, 2010
The Senate Report 111-039 accompanying S. 1406, the 2010 Agriculture Appropriations Bill, requested that the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS) prepare and publish a report regarding consumer perceptions of canned fruits and vegetables. In the absence of consumer...
FTS-344-01, October 04, 2010
This report analyzes the remarkable growth in China’s apple juice concentrate exports since the 1990s and the factors behind the growth. The industry is a prime example of how capital investment and government policies bring China’s labor-intensive agricultural products into the world market in the ...
ERR-96, June 03, 2010
ERS compares the potential effectiveness of coupons versus price discounts in encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among participants in Federal food and nutrition assistance programs.
FTS-341-01, April 21, 2010
This report reviews Japanese government programs to support domestic fruit production and how these policies affect fruit consumption in one of the largest markets for U.S. fruits. Production targets and subsidies aim to bolster the supply of domestic fruit, while phytosanitary measures and tariffs ...
EIB-58, September 30, 2009
Organic foods now occupy prominent shelf space in the produce and dairy aisles of most mainstream U.S. food retailers. The marketing boom has pushed retail sales of organic foods up to $21.1 billion in 2008 from $3.6 billion in 1997. U.S. organic-industry growth is evident in an expanding number of ...
FAU-125, August 06, 2009
Using import data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines patterns of U.S. food imports for fiscal years 1998-2007. Results indicate faster import growth trends for consumer-ready foods, such as fruit, vegetables, meats, seafood, and processed food products. Although the United States impor...
EIB-52, July 07, 2009
Food imports from China more than tripled in value from 2001 to 2008. ERS indicates the types of foods imported, analyzes FDA refusals of shipments, and describes China’s food safety regulation.
FTS-337-01, June 03, 2009
Specialized fruit and tree nut farms represent a substantial segment of the U.S. fruit and tree nut industry. By nature of the commodities produced and the markets targeted, these specialized farms require substantial investments in production inputs. Using data from USDA’s Agricultural Resource and...
EIB-55, June 03, 2009
Consumer demand for organic products has widened over the last decade. While new producers have emerged to help meet demand, market participants report that a supply squeeze is constraining growth for both individual firms and the organic sector overall. Partly in response to shortages in organic su...
WRS-09-03, March 31, 2009
Implementation of the agricultural provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has drawn to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA’s transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade were removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member coun...
EIB-44, March 20, 2009
Using new national estimates of supermarket food loss, ERS updates each fresh fruit, vegetable, meat, and poultry commodity in its Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data series.
ERR-71, February 05, 2009
The aging of Japan’s population only partially explains the downward trend in orange consumption, and the negative trend could continue.
AP-032, September 12, 2008
In response to Senate Report 110-134, accompanying S. 1859, the 2008 the Agriculture Appropriations Bill, ERS researchers published a report about consumer perceptions and consumption of canned fruits and vegetables using USDA’s food consumption survey data, Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Expe...
ERR-60, July 11, 2008
ERS examines the size, importance, and composition of the hired farmworker force, updating information published in 2000. These workers make up a third of the farm labor
EIB-33, March 28, 2008
ERS investigates trends in U.S. food consumption from 1970 to 2005. Results suggest many Americans still fall short of Federal dietary recommendations for whole grains, lower fat dairy products, and fruits and vegetables.
FTS-330-01, March 12, 2008
Japan is a large market for U.S. orange exports, and most of Japan’s orange consumption is supplied by U.S. exports. Orange consumption and imports grew until 1994, but have declined since. Demographic shifts are linked to changing orange consumption: older birth cohorts eat more oranges, and younge...
FTS-330, November 28, 2007
The index of prices received by fruit and nut growers dropped below last year’s indices in June and has remained lower each month through October. Fresh orange, grapefruit, and apple grower prices were lower for September and October 2007 compared with the same time last year, but fresh lemon prices...
FTS-32801, September 10, 2007
U.S. imports of fresh fruit and vegetables have increased substantially, particularly since the 1990s. Dominant suppliers are the North American Free Trade Agreement region for fresh vegetables, the Southern Hemisphere countries for off-season fresh fruit, and equatorial countries for bananas. The s...
WRS-0701, March 29, 2007
Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is drawing to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA’s transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade will be removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member countries systematically disman...
OCE-2007-1, February 14, 2007
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2016. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
Amber Waves, February 01, 2007
A recent World Trade Organization challenge to U.S. commodity programs has created pressure to eliminate fruit and vegetable planting restrictions on farms that plant program crops. If planting restrictions were relaxed, overall market effects would likely be limited, with the greatest effects in C...
ERR-31, November 20, 2006
To help Americans meet nutritional requirements while staying within caloric recommendations, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products, and fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products. This report provides one view of the potential imp...
ERR-30, November 08, 2006
Participants in U.S. farm programs are restricted from planting and harvesting wild rice, fruit, and most vegetables (nonprogram crops) on acreage historically used for program crops (known as base acreage). However, a recent World Trade Organization challenge to U.S. programs has created pressure t...
ERR-24, August 15, 2006
ERS estimates the share of retail food prices farmers earn on two commodity groups—fruits and vegetables. While the farm share has been shrinking, the decrease is less than previously believed.
VGS-31301, April 17, 2006
This report describes the economic characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry, providing supply, demand, and policy background for an industry that accounts for nearly a third of U.S. crop cash receipts and a fifth of U.S. agricultural exports.
FTS-32001, February 14, 2006
China has raised its profile in global fruit and vegetable markets, with the value of its exports during 2002-04 more than double the value from a decade earlier. Most of China's exports are processed fruits and vegetables that do not yet pose a serious challenge to U.S. exports. However, China's fr...
FTS-31901, January 11, 2006
Strong economic growth is projected to lead to continued expansion of Indian apple demand, but the high cost of domestic and imported apples compared with other Indian fruit is likely to limit consumption to higher income consumers. U.S. apples have accounted for the largest share of Indian imports,...
OCS-05I01, October 26, 2005
Like producers of other agricultural commodities, U.S. peanut growers in recent years have confronted pressures from market forces and the impacts of policy developments, both domestic and international. Most notably, peanut policy was transformed in 2002 by the elimination of a decades-old marketin...
FTS-31801, October 26, 2005
The World Trade Organization (WTO) ruled in June 2005 that Japan's phytosanitary protocol related to fire blight for imports of U.S. apples was not justified and was in breach of Japan's WTO commitments. In August 2005, Japan issued a new phytosanitary protocol that complies with the WTO ruling. Wit...
VGS-30801, May 27, 2005
Price premiums for organic products have contributed to growth in certified organic farmland and, ultimately, market expansion. Fresh produce has long been an important component of the organic food sector, and a significant contributor to the organic industry's growth over the last decade. This art...
ERR-2, April 01, 2005
The North American greenhouse tomato industry has grown rapidly since the early 1990s and now plays a major role in the fresh tomato industry. ERS looked at consumption and price trends, competition from Mexico and Canada, and the rising industry’s effect on the entire fresh field tomato sector.
AIB-792-7, November 12, 2004
Rising income, higher educational attainment, improved diet and health knowledge, more frequent eating out, and a growing population that will become older and more diverse in race and ethnicity are all shaping U.S. agricultural consumption. These effects are analyzed using data from the 1994-96 and...
AIB-792-6, November 12, 2004
National data on the diets of U.S. children and adolescents indicate they are consuming more fat and saturated fat than recommended while their intakes of fruits and vegetables fall well below recommended levels.
AIB-792-5, November 12, 2004
Both public and private organizations have noted that Americans generally eat less fruits and vegetables than is recommended in the Food Guide Pyramid. For example, the Produce for Better Health Foundation found that only 38 percent of Americans consume the recommended number of servings of vegetabl...
AIB-792-4, November 12, 2004
Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to...
AIB-792-3, November 12, 2004
The USDA encourages people to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables through the Food Guide Pyramid and participation in the National 5-A-Day Partnership. A varied diet helps ensure a complete mix of nutrients, and a lack of variety in vegetable consumption has been further linked to the incidence o...
AIB-792-2, November 12, 2004
For good health, USDA urges American consumers to eat more fruits and vegetables-5 to 9 servings per day-and to choose a healthier, more varied mix of these foods. The variety of produce available to Americans has blossomed in recent years, but are consumers responding? The first step in determining...
AIB-792-1, November 12, 2004
Nutritionists recommend a variety of vegetables, including regular servings of deep-yellow and dark-green vegetables prepared with limited amounts of fats and sugars. In contrast, the most popular vegetable choice of most Americans is fried potatoes.
AIB-792, November 04, 2004
Contrary to assumptions that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh, a consumer can meet daily recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables for 64 cents.
AIB-790, July 20, 2004
This analysis uses ACNielsen Homescan data on 1999 household food purchases from all types of retail outlets to estimate an annual retail price per pound and per serving for 69 forms of fruits and 85 forms of vegetables. Among the forms we priced, more than half were estimated to cost 25 cents or le...
VGS-303-01, July 01, 2004
The European Union (EU) participates in regional and preferential trading arrangements more than any other country or region. Over 70 percent of EU fruit and vegetable imports are from countries benefiting from preferential treatment for some portion of that trade. The most valuable preferences are ...
WRS-0406, June 01, 2004
International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions—the E...
FTS-30901, April 30, 2004
Cuban citrus is a major commercial crop and foreign exchange earner. The 1990s saw an industry collapse and a shift from fresh oranges to processed citrus products and grapefruit production. If commercial relationships with the United States were restored, Cuba's citrus industry would likely look to...
FTS-30902, April 09, 2004
Cuba's tropical fruit industry primarily caters to domestic markets with fresh fruits that are Cuban diet staples. Plantains and bananas account for over 70 percent of production. Tropical fruit production fell with Cuba's collapsing economy in the early 1990s. With ideal climate and land resources,...
AIB-789-5, February 28, 2004
This report examines how U.S. and other nations responded to foodborne illness outbreaks traced to internationally-traded food.
WRS-04-02, January 23, 2004
This report examines the economic rationale behind the various claims about the effects of mandatory country-of-origin labeling, thereby identifying the most likely outcomes. Profits motivate firms to innovate and introduce thousands of new food products each year to satisfy consumers' demand. Yet, ...
AER-825, September 23, 2003
Retail consolidation, technological change in production and marketing, and growing consumer demand have altered the traditional market relationships between producers, wholesalers, and retailers.
FTS-30501, August 01, 2003
U.S. per capita consumption of oranges has grown slowly since the 1960s, although the orange remains the number one fruit consumed (total fresh and processed uses). Consumption patterns appear to vary by demographic and economic characteristics. Northeast consumers show the strongest preference for ...
VGS-285-01, August 30, 2001
This article discusses issues affecting U.S. trade in fruits and vegetables that are likely to be considered during upcoming trade negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO). Tariff reductions, tariff-rate quotas, export subsidies, and domestic support are discussed, as are the impacts of an...
AER-795, January 25, 2001
In the past year, trade practices between fresh produce shippers and food retailers gained national attention. Shippers are concerned that recent retail consolidation has led to market power and the growing incidence of fees and services. Retailers argue that these new trade practices reflect their ...
AIB-709, July 03, 1995
On both a volume and value basis, the United States is the world's largest spice importer and consumer, with both imports and consumption on an uptrend for the past 10 years. While the United States imports more than 40 separate spices, seven of these (vanilla beans, black and white pepper, capsicum...