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Phytosanitary Regulation

Increased trade in fresh fruits and vegetables provides U.S. consumers with a variety of benefits, including the possibility of improved nutrition with year-round availability of these products. The USDA's Animal and Plant Health and Inspection Service (APHIS) establishes regulations on the fruit and vegetable imports to prevent the inadvertent introduction of harmful organisms and diseases (i.e., pests). Unlike the Food and Drug Administration sanitary regulations, which mainly address human health concerns, APHIS phytosanitary regulations mainly address plant and animal health, which is broadly understood to include risks to agricultural productivity, environmental services, and other natural resources.  These regulations may include prohibitions on imports, treatment requirements, restrictions on the origins and destinations of the goods, increased testing requirements, and comprehensive field measures and growing conditions as defined in a “systems approach.”  The World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures establishes a framework for establishing and applying trade restrictions based on these concerns and a dispute resolution mechanism for violations of that framework.    

This data product provides information on phytosanitary regulations affecting U.S. imports of 42 fresh fruits and vegetables. From 2008 to 2012, ERS has annually published statistics on the countries eligible to ship these goods to the United States and the extent to which they represent the whole of world trade.  In 2015, the agency revised the format and added additional information on the specific treatment requirements for 29 of the fruits and vegetables permitted into the United States, the rates at which goods are rejected during inspections (i.e., the risk rate), and the rates at which specific actions are taken during inspections.  For related information, see the 2014 ERS Report “The Effects of Phytosanitary Regulations on U.S. Imports of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables”.

This data product supports the objectives of the Program for Research on the Economics of Invasive Species Management (PREISM) under which ERS funded research to improve the economic basis of decision making concerning invasive species issues, policies, and programs between 2003 and 2008.


Errata:  On April 29th, the 2016 data files were corrected to include the following data:

  • In each commodity file, the “U.S. Import Volume by Source” chart in the “U.S. Import Share (Volume)” worksheet was corrected to fix a database error that hadoverstated the volume of U.S. imports for many commodities.
  • The units displayed in the figures “Top Ten Producers (Volume)” and “Top Ten Exporters (Volume)” were corrected to report “1,000 Metric Tons” instead of “Metric Tons.”
  • The “Summary of Production and Trade” worksheets for Tangerines, Potatoes, Spinach, and Tomatoes were corrected to fix multiple errors resulting from a programming error in the database.
  • The “Summary of Production and Trade” datasheet for Tangerines and Potatoes was corrected to include several countries that had been omitted.
Data Set   
DownloadsLast UpdatedNext Update
Individual Commodity FilesBack to top
FruitsBack to top
ApplesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
ApricotsDownload as Excel4/29/2016
AvocadosDownload as Excel4/29/2016
BananasDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Cantaloup and HoneydewDownload as Excel4/29/2016
CherriesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
DatesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
FigsDownload as Excel4/29/2016
GrapefruitsDownload as Excel4/29/2016
GrapesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
KiwisDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Lemons and LimesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
MangoesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
OlivesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
OrangesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
PapayasDownload as Excel4/29/2016
PeachesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
PearsDownload as Excel4/29/2016
PineapplesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
PlumsDownload as Excel4/29/2016
StrawberriesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
TangerinesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
WatermelonsDownload as Excel4/29/2016
VegetablesBack to top
ArtichokesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
AsparagusDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Bell PepperDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Broccoli and CauliflowerDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Cabbage and Other BrassicasDownload as Excel4/29/2016
CarrotsDownload as Excel4/29/2016
CucumbersDownload as Excel4/29/2016
EggplantDownload as Excel4/29/2016
GarlicDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Green BeanDownload as Excel4/29/2016
LettuceDownload as Excel4/29/2016
MushroomDownload as Excel4/29/2016
OkraDownload as Excel4/29/2016
OnionsDownload as Excel4/29/2016
PeppersDownload as Excel4/29/2016
PotatoesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
SquashDownload as Excel8/29/2012
SpinachDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Sweet CornDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Sweet PotatoDownload as Excel4/29/2016
TomatoesDownload as Excel4/29/2016
Summary FilesBack to top
World Production and Exports of Fresh Fruits Eligible for Importation into the United States Download as Excel4/22/2016
World Production and Exports of Fresh Vegetables Eligible for Importation into the United States Download as Excel4/22/2016
Summary: Fresh fruits and vegetables eligible for importation into the U.S. by country and their treatment requirementsDownload as Excel6/17/2015
Other FilesBack to top
APHIS FAO Country ConcordanceDownload as Excel6/17/2015
APHIS FAO Commodity ConcordanceDownload as Excel6/17/2015
Historical DataBack to top
Country_Commodity MatrixBack to top
Summary: Fresh Fruits Eligible for Importation into the United States by Country Download as Excel8/29/2012
Summary: Fresh Vegetables Eligible for Importation into the United States by Country Download as Excel6/30/2012
All Fruit FilesBack to top
PhytosanitaryFruit2015.zipDownload as Zip6/17/2015
2011, PhytosanitaryFruit2011.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
2010, PhytosanitaryFruit2010.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
2009, PhytosanitaryFruit2009.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
2008, PhytosanitaryFruit2008.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
2007, PhytosanitaryFruit2007.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
All Vegetable FilesBack to top
PhytosanitaryVegetable2015.zipDownload as Zip6/17/2015
2011, PhytosanitaryVegetable2011.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
2010, PhytosanitaryVegetable2010.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
2009, PhytosanitaryVegetable2009.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
2008, PhytosanitaryVegetable2008.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011
2007, PhytosanitaryVegetable2007.zipDownload as Zip6/30/2011

Last updated: Thursday, May 05, 2016

For more information contact: Peyton Ferrier